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Hydrogel encapsulation for long-term microscopy of living organisms

Penelitian - Scientists demonstrate simple and inexpensive method for rapid encapsulation of small organisms in every stage of development in a photo-crosslinked polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel soft limits movement in confined spaces. Immobilized animals maintain original morphology in an environment compatible with chemical treatment, optical stimulation, and light-sheet microscopy.

Fluorescence microscopy has a huge impact on biomedical research, provide information about the spatial and temporal gene expression, molecular dynamics, morphology labeled structure, and function as an indicator of genetically encoded calcium that shows the activity of cells that are electrically charged.

A longitudinal study requires sample immobilization during this imaging period while maintaining the health of the organism and maintaining the fluorescent marker function. On the other hand the imaging experiment lasts only a few minutes per sample in several stages due to resource constraints and u…
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The first historic genome of Treponema pallidum causes syphilis

Penelitian - The scientists rediscovered the first historic genome of the bacterium Treponema pallidum that causes syphilis. The international team managed to encode three genomes of T. pallidum bacteria from the framework of the Mexican colonial era and was able to distinguish the subspecies that caused syphilis and subspecies that caused yaws from archaeological sources.

A team of researchers including scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, the University of Tübingen, the National School of Anthropology and History in Mexico City, and the University of Zurich have restored DNA from this bacteria from an ancient sample that opens up possibilities directly study the evolution and origins of disease.

New report on PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases where scientists differentiate genetically between subspecies of the disease that causes syphilis and which causes yaws. Diseases cause different effects on living people, but it is not easy to differentiate…

Wild rats ignore predation threats in familiar environments

Penelitian - Scientists from the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen, and the Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding in Jastrzebiec report findings to Scientific Reports that Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony will not respond to potential hazards characterized by the presence of odors predator.

So many species are very sensitive to the presence of predatory odors and reactions to carnivorous scents. The prey animals develop this particular adaptation that is important in the course of evolution for survival by allowing them to recognize, avoid and defend themselves against predators.

Investigation of predatory odor evasion is important because the value of the data to develop an anxiety disorder model, to design effective pest repellent to protect plants and plantations also alleviates human conflicts with wildlife. The smell of predators as a repellent to pest species appears in a variety of commercially available products…

Microfluidic device for combination drug screening on cancer biopsy

Penelitian - Scientists have developed a new device that allows testing a combination of cancer drugs to be quickly and cheaply tested on tumor cells. Research reported in Nature Communications is the latest step in personalized medicine using a microfluidic device where a cancer test can be used to tell doctors about a combination of safe and effective cancer treatments.

The team of researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Aachen University Hospital, University Hospital Heidelberg and Heidelberg University combined the basic science of clinical expertise to screen over 1100 treatment conditions comprising 56 drug combinations in 20 replicates in tumor cells patient.

"This is an interesting 'proof of principle' collaboration between scientists and doctors. We have shown this test can be run quickly and less than US$150 per patient," said Christoph Merten of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.

Large scale p…

Mice learn to avoid future regrets

Penelitian - Mice regrets and learns to avoid it in the future. The post-regret phenomenon is considered unique to humans, but the University of Minnesota scientist team reported the findings to PLOS Biology have found that mice were able to learn to plan for the future to avoid regrets even if there were no additional advantages in rewards.

Mice like humans do not like to change their mind and are willing to pay to avoid such situations. Brian Sweis, a neuroscientist at the University of Minnesota, and colleagues designed an intelligent behavioral experiment in which mice were trained to run on tracks and decided to spend time waiting for food at different "restaurants" where each gave a different wait time.

"Changing your mind means that you first realize that you have made a mistake, and secondly that new action will be a better choice. The two mind-changing decisions capture the peculiarity of regret is agency error and counterfactual reasoning," Sweis said.