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Archaeobotanical reveals the origin of bread 14,400 years ago in Jordan

Penelitian - The earliest direct evidence of bread is at least 4,000 years before the advent of agriculture, but the production of bread based on wild cereal may have encouraged hunter-gatherers 14,400 years ago to cultivate cereals thus contributing to the agricultural revolution in the Neolithic period.

Scientists report to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences for the charred remains of baked flatbread at an archaeological site in Jordan. A group of gatherers make the first innovation to start more complex lifestyle changes and food flavors.

A team of researchers from the University of Copenhagen, University College London and the University of Cambridge analyzed scraps of charred food from the Natufian hunter-gatherer site known as Shubayqa 1 located in the Black Desert in northeastern Jordan.

"So we now know that products like bread are produced long before agricultural developments," says Amaia Arranz-Otaegui, an archaeobotanist at the University of Copenhage…
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Build design and behavior controls for six legged robots

Penelitian - Robots exploring workspaces by climbing stairs and performing tasks including carrying heavy loads, opening doors, cutting pipes and controlling valves. Researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in Shanghai designed a series of robots such as troops that behave to perform tasks in an industrial area.

Research on the legged robot has attracted the attention of academia and industry. Multi-input multi-input smart intelligent machines incorporate multiple adaptation systems in the environment and tasks. Mechanical design and control frameworks are challenging issues especially to build the characteristics required in the job.

Many companies and universities are designing different types of autonomous robots including Boston Dynamics as one of the remarkable organizations creating two and four foot robots including BigDog, Atlas and LS3. Six-foot robot has also been developed, such as Athlete (NASA), Whegs (Quinn) and Octopus (SJTU).

Ling Fang and Feng Gao reported a study…

Ingenia prima shows dinosaur gigantism since Triassic

Penelitian - Giant dinosaurs live on Earth earlier than previously thought where a team of scientists in Argentina discovered the bones of a 200-million-year-old species or Triassic Period. Ingenia prima has a size three times the size of the largest Triassic dinosaur found on the site of Balde de Leyes in San Juan.

The research team led by Cecilia Apaldetti of Universidad Nacional de San Juan reported findings to Nature Ecology & Evolution on some spinal fossils from the neck and tail, as well as front and rear leg bones. Prior to this discovery it was theorized that gigantism developed during the Jurassic period or about 180 million years ago.

"We realize this is something different.We found the first gigantic form among all the dinosaurs of their time. The species show an unknown growth strategy and show gigantism came much earlier than expected," Apaldetti said.

Herbivorous dinosaurs are sauropods easily recognizable by very long necks and tails. The Triassic Period …

Bird flight demonstrates method for dissecting leadership

Penelitian - The scientists analyzed the bird tandem flight recorded in the natural environment to demonstrate a new method for dissecting the potential for change in leadership on self-propelled particles in which the emergence of leader-follower relationships can be controlled. The team claims this method is an effective new methodological tool to advance the understanding of collective behavior.

Leader-follower relationships are generally hypothesized as the fundamental mechanisms underlying collective behavior in many biological and physical systems. Such behavior controls the dynamics of complex systems to the desired state.

Previous studies have partially faced major constraints by the limitations of methods for dissecting intermittent causal relationships where leadership is assumed to be consistent in space and time. This assumption has been contrasted with recent advances in animal behavior studies.

"We used information theory and time series analysis to propose new and …

Nano-kirigami manipulate light in the nanoscale

Penelitian - Researchers for the first time apply nanokirigami approaches using nanodevices to manipulate light and open new possibilities for research and creation of new methods of communication, detection to new light-based computing devices.

Nicholas Fang from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and colleagues built nanokirigami that incorporated the ancient origami art approach in creating a 3-D shape with folded paper and kirigami that allowed folding, but applied to flat matter at the nanoscale within one thousandth of a meter.

The findings reported to Science Advances are using standard microchip manufacturing technology where ion beams are focused to create the exact gap patterns in sheet metal only a few dozen nanometers thick. This process causes the foil to bend and twist into a three-dimensional form to selectively filter light with certain polarization.

New nanodevices are formed in only one single step and can be used to perform a number of different …