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Scientists completed genome sequences of Streptococcus sobrinus

Penelitian - The University of Illinois research team at Urbana-Champaign has sequenced the genome Streptococcus sobrinus as a rare bacterium that causes tooth decay rampant. S. sobrinus is difficult to study in the laboratory and is not present in everyone, and has been spared the work by researchers for many years.

The most common chronic illness in children and adults is tooth decay occurs when the good and bad bacteria in the mouth are out of balance. Streptococcus mutans form a biofilm, then take the sugar in the mouth and ferment it into an acid that covers the teeth and causes cavities.

Penelitian Scientists completed genome sequences of Streptococcus sobrinus

Scientists also know there is a second harmful bacteria is S. sobrinus that accelerates tooth decay in some people, but very little is known about this microbe. S. sobrinus is so rare that researchers have focused years of effort to understand the more common S. mutans.

"S. sobrinus produces acid faster and is associated with the worst clinical outcomes, especially among children. If S. sobrinus is present with S. mutans, you get tooth decay rampant. The synergy between the two that we do not understand," says Paul Jensen.

"S. sobrinus is an area of innovative work because it is plagued by a lack of information. By 2018, it is strange that we have one species causes illness and no complete genome. However, the team is ambitious and completes editing within a year," Jensen said.

The S. sobrinus sequence allows Jensen and the team to build a computational model to better understand how both bacteria interact and why S. sobrinus can cause final tooth decay when combined with S. mutans. However, S. sobrinus has no complete pathway to sense and react to nearby bacteria.

S. mutans sends the feeler in the form of a peptide to find out how many other S. mutans cells are nearby. Cells reach a certain threshold between good and bad bacteria to attack and create an imbalance in a person's mouth leading to rapid cavity formation.

"S. sobrinus does not have a complete system to do this. We really want to explore this further and find out what's missing and why," says Jensen.

Journal : Mia J. Sales et al. Complete Genome Sequences of Streptococcus sobrinus SL1 (ATCC 33478 = DSM 20742), NIDR 6715-7 (ATCC 27351), NIDR 6715-15 (ATCC 27352), and NCTC 10919 (ATCC 33402), Microbiology Resource Announcements, July 26, 2018, DOI:10.1128/MRA.00804-18

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