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Scientists report diversity of the Pandoravirus family

Penelitian ~ Scientists show most gene specific strains of giant pandoraviruses have no homologous and show statistical features that are comparable to intergenic regions. The research team at Aix-Marseille University reported the creation of de novo genes can contribute to the evolution of the Pandoraviridae genome.

Pandoraviruses have a 2.5 Mb genome size packaged in forms and bacteria-like dimensions found to infect Acanthamoeba remains the most complex virus since its discovery in 2013. Unique characteristics show different members of the giant virus that infects Acanthamoeba.

Penelitian Scientists report diversity of the Pandoravirus family

Matthieu Legendre from Aix Marseille Univ and colleagues isolated three new strains from different locations and environments to perform the first comparative genomic analysis of the Pandoraviridae family spread across the world. The genome is built by combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and bioinformatic analyzes to reveal many non-coding transcripts.

The scientists describe three new members of Pandoravirus quercus isolated from the ground in Marseille, Pandoravirus neocaledonia isolated from mangrove brackish water near the Noumea airport in New Caledonia, and Pandoravirus macleodensis isolated from a freshwater pool near Melbourne in Australia or 700 meters from the discovery site of Pandoravirus dulcis.

Light and electron microscopes make it possible to follow the viral replication cycle in Acanthamoeba castellanii where the five available pandoravirus strains in the laboratory and the Pandoravirus inopinatum genome provide comparative data to build an emerging global picture of families and improve the genome annotation of each individual strain.

The Pandoraviridae family is very diverse in terms of gene content. Much of the genome code for proteins without homologous in other cells or viruses raises the question of evolutionary origin. The purified virus is made up of over 200 different proteins and about half of them are shared by all strains. These large core proteins are consistent with very similar initial infection stages shown by different isolates.

Journal : Matthieu Legendre et al. Diversity and evolution of the emerging Pandoraviridae family, Nature Communications, 11 June 2018, DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-04698-4



Cacing Mata Sapi Thelazia gulosa Menginfeksi Mata Manusia

Seorang wanita berusia 26 tahun merasakan sesuatu di mata kiri selama berhari-hari, tapi ini bukan bulu mata yang menyebalkan atau serangga yang menyemprotkan racun ke wajahnya. Seminggu setelah iritasi pertama, penduduk Oregon tersebut menarik cacing transparan panjang 1 sentimeter dari matanya.

Sebuah kasus kambuhan manusia pertama yang pernah dilaporkan tentang parasit mata sapi, Thelazia gulosa. Selama 20 hari, dia dan dokter menyingkirkan 14 cacing dari mata yang terinfeksi. Tim dokter melaporkan ke di American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Setelah itu tidak ada lagi sintom iritasi mata.

"Ini peristiwa sangat langka dan menarik dari perspektif parasitologis. Mungkin tidak begitu menyenangkan jika Anda pasiennya," kata Richard Bradbury, parasitolog di U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention di Atlanta.

T. gulosa adalah nematoda di Amerika Utara, Eropa, Australia dan Asia Tengah. Mereka menginfeksi mata ternak yang besar dan menghabiskan tahap larva di …

Agama Mendidik Anak-Anak Menjadi Serakah

Penelitian ~ Agama membuat anak-anak tidak bermurah hati. Keyakinan agama memiliki pengaruh negatif pada altruisme dan kepekaan sosial atau daya empati. Meskipun penelitian ilmiah yang pernah dilakukan selalu dituduh bermuatan sentimen, temuan selalu konsisten bahwa orang-orang religius cenderung berbohong dan membesar-besarkan kegiatan amal.

Jangan khawatir karena ini bukan lelucon, tapi premis dimana agama membuat anak-anak yang polos menjadi serakah. Anak-anak ateis lebih murah hati dan kurang menghakimi dibanding anak beragama.

Anak-anak yang dibesarkan dari rumah tangga religius menghasilkan moral paling buruk dan suka menghakimi dibanding anak-anak yang dibesarkan dari keluarga non-religius.

Para ilmuwan dari 7 universitas mempelajari perkembangan moral 1.200 anak Islam, Kristen dan non-agama berumur 5 hingga 12 tahun di AS, Kanada, China, Yordania, Turki dan Afrika Selatan.

Komposisi anak adalah 24% Kristen, 43% Islam dan 27,6% non-agama. Jumlah Yahudi, Buddha, Hindu, agnostik …

Researchers built nanowire-microfluidic for sensitive and flexible bionic sensors

Penelitian - Researchers demonstrated multiscale nanowire-microfluidic hybrid strain sensors with high sensitivity and flexibility that could potentially serve as detectors for human movement and bionic ligaments in soft robotics. The sensor operates at low voltage and is capable of responding to various mechanical deformations for use in electronic systems for robotic wireless control.

In recent years, strain sensors have shown the potential for soft electronic applications to detect human body movements, health monitoring systems, and human-machine interactions. Strain sensors can also be useful for building human body parts, soft robotics and bionic robotics in the future.

Nanomaterials with low-dimensional morphology have been explored to improve the performance of strain sensors, but it remains difficult to achieve high stretchability and high sensitivity simultaneously. Chuan Liu from Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangzhou and colleagues designed the sensor strain of composite stru…

Crab spiders measure the wind before rolling balloons for flight

Penelitian - Spider flying uses nanoscale fibers to ride the wind. Scientists at Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin reported to PLOS Biology about the take-off seconds that crab spiders (Xysticus spp) take off for flights over a gentle breeze by first feeling the wind and then spinning dozens of nano fibers up to seven meters.

Many types of spiders are involved in balloons to wander away from the birthplace, to find food or mating and to find new sites for colonization. Moonsung Cho and colleagues at the Technische Universit├Ąt in Berlin gave first glimpse into the "bubbling" behavior that allowed certain spiders to travel in the wind for hundreds of kilometers.

"The pre-flight behavior suggests crab spiders are evaluating meteorological conditions before takeoff. Balloons may not be just a random launch into the wind, but those that occur when conditions support most productive travel," Cho said.

Crab spiders (Xysticus spp.) Measuring about 5 mm and weighing 25 milligra…

Biohybrid robots as cyborgs powered by living muscle tissue

The researchers created cyborgs by increasing the integration of living muscles into robots. A new field of biohybrid robotics involves the use of living tissues inside the robot, not just metals and plastics where muscles are one of the key potential components to provide driving force for movement and function.

Researchers at the University of Tokyo integrate live muscles into machines as a source of movement. The team developed a new method cultivated into individual muscle precursor cells from scratch into the sheet and then fully functioning into skeletal muscle tissue.

They incorporate these muscles into the skeleton of a biohybrid robot as an antagonist pair that mimics humans to achieve extraordinary motion and continue function for more than a week before the muscles become limp where the living cells die. The team reports to Science Robotics.

"We build muscles, we managed to use them as antagonistic pairs with one contraction and the other widened, just like in our body…