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Oldest Yersinia pestis genome of bubonic plague

Penelitian - The international team led by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History analyzed two genes of 3,800-year-old Yersinia pestis that opened the origin of plague disease in the Bronze Age. The burial in Samara in Russia has the same bacterial strain as the ancestor that caused Justinian Plague, the Black Death and epidemic outbreaks in the late 1800s in China.

The outbreaks caused by Y. pestis become some of the deadliest pandemics in the world and the disease continues to affect the population around the world today. The origin and age of the disease are not well understood, especially about when and where Y. pestis acquires a virulence profile and spreads through a vector of lice.

Penelitian Oldest Yersinia pestis genome of bubonic plague

The ancient genome of Y. pestis identifies the earliest variants to the Late Neolithic End and Early Bronze, but this genome does not exhibit genetic signatures that are thought to make the epidemic very efficient including the adaptation for survival in ticks as the primary vector for reaching mammals.

The researchers analyzed nine skeletons in which two people were infected with Y. pestis at the time of death and buried together in a cemetery of about 3,800 years old. The analysis of human DNA suggests the individual may have originated from the Srubnaya culture that matches the archaeological evidence.

"Both individuals appear to have the same Y. pestis strain and have all the genetic components we know for the form of plague," says Kirsten Bos of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

Data were collected to calculate the age of lineage that pushed back the earliest bubonic outbreak. Previous studies have identified a Y. pestis genealogy that was then present throughout Eurasia during the Bronze Age, but recent reports show at least two outbreak lineages and may have included different transmission and virulence characteristics.

Journal : Maria A. Spyrou et al. Analysis of 3800-year-old Yersinia pestis genomes suggests Bronze Age origin for bubonic plague, Nature Communications, 08 June 2018, DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-04550-9



Cacing Mata Sapi Thelazia gulosa Menginfeksi Mata Manusia

Seorang wanita berusia 26 tahun merasakan sesuatu di mata kiri selama berhari-hari, tapi ini bukan bulu mata yang menyebalkan atau serangga yang menyemprotkan racun ke wajahnya. Seminggu setelah iritasi pertama, penduduk Oregon tersebut menarik cacing transparan panjang 1 sentimeter dari matanya.

Sebuah kasus kambuhan manusia pertama yang pernah dilaporkan tentang parasit mata sapi, Thelazia gulosa. Selama 20 hari, dia dan dokter menyingkirkan 14 cacing dari mata yang terinfeksi. Tim dokter melaporkan ke di American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Setelah itu tidak ada lagi sintom iritasi mata.

"Ini peristiwa sangat langka dan menarik dari perspektif parasitologis. Mungkin tidak begitu menyenangkan jika Anda pasiennya," kata Richard Bradbury, parasitolog di U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention di Atlanta.

T. gulosa adalah nematoda di Amerika Utara, Eropa, Australia dan Asia Tengah. Mereka menginfeksi mata ternak yang besar dan menghabiskan tahap larva di …

Agama Mendidik Anak-Anak Menjadi Serakah

Penelitian ~ Agama membuat anak-anak tidak bermurah hati. Keyakinan agama memiliki pengaruh negatif pada altruisme dan kepekaan sosial atau daya empati. Meskipun penelitian ilmiah yang pernah dilakukan selalu dituduh bermuatan sentimen, temuan selalu konsisten bahwa orang-orang religius cenderung berbohong dan membesar-besarkan kegiatan amal.

Jangan khawatir karena ini bukan lelucon, tapi premis dimana agama membuat anak-anak yang polos menjadi serakah. Anak-anak ateis lebih murah hati dan kurang menghakimi dibanding anak beragama.

Anak-anak yang dibesarkan dari rumah tangga religius menghasilkan moral paling buruk dan suka menghakimi dibanding anak-anak yang dibesarkan dari keluarga non-religius.

Para ilmuwan dari 7 universitas mempelajari perkembangan moral 1.200 anak Islam, Kristen dan non-agama berumur 5 hingga 12 tahun di AS, Kanada, China, Yordania, Turki dan Afrika Selatan.

Komposisi anak adalah 24% Kristen, 43% Islam dan 27,6% non-agama. Jumlah Yahudi, Buddha, Hindu, agnostik …

Researchers built nanowire-microfluidic for sensitive and flexible bionic sensors

Penelitian - Researchers demonstrated multiscale nanowire-microfluidic hybrid strain sensors with high sensitivity and flexibility that could potentially serve as detectors for human movement and bionic ligaments in soft robotics. The sensor operates at low voltage and is capable of responding to various mechanical deformations for use in electronic systems for robotic wireless control.

In recent years, strain sensors have shown the potential for soft electronic applications to detect human body movements, health monitoring systems, and human-machine interactions. Strain sensors can also be useful for building human body parts, soft robotics and bionic robotics in the future.

Nanomaterials with low-dimensional morphology have been explored to improve the performance of strain sensors, but it remains difficult to achieve high stretchability and high sensitivity simultaneously. Chuan Liu from Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangzhou and colleagues designed the sensor strain of composite stru…

Crab spiders measure the wind before rolling balloons for flight

Penelitian - Spider flying uses nanoscale fibers to ride the wind. Scientists at Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin reported to PLOS Biology about the take-off seconds that crab spiders (Xysticus spp) take off for flights over a gentle breeze by first feeling the wind and then spinning dozens of nano fibers up to seven meters.

Many types of spiders are involved in balloons to wander away from the birthplace, to find food or mating and to find new sites for colonization. Moonsung Cho and colleagues at the Technische Universit├Ąt in Berlin gave first glimpse into the "bubbling" behavior that allowed certain spiders to travel in the wind for hundreds of kilometers.

"The pre-flight behavior suggests crab spiders are evaluating meteorological conditions before takeoff. Balloons may not be just a random launch into the wind, but those that occur when conditions support most productive travel," Cho said.

Crab spiders (Xysticus spp.) Measuring about 5 mm and weighing 25 milligra…

Biohybrid robots as cyborgs powered by living muscle tissue

The researchers created cyborgs by increasing the integration of living muscles into robots. A new field of biohybrid robotics involves the use of living tissues inside the robot, not just metals and plastics where muscles are one of the key potential components to provide driving force for movement and function.

Researchers at the University of Tokyo integrate live muscles into machines as a source of movement. The team developed a new method cultivated into individual muscle precursor cells from scratch into the sheet and then fully functioning into skeletal muscle tissue.

They incorporate these muscles into the skeleton of a biohybrid robot as an antagonist pair that mimics humans to achieve extraordinary motion and continue function for more than a week before the muscles become limp where the living cells die. The team reports to Science Robotics.

"We build muscles, we managed to use them as antagonistic pairs with one contraction and the other widened, just like in our body…